That Time the U.S. Military Launched a Half a Billion Needles to Space for Reasons…


In the early 1960s, international communications
were limited to transmissions through undersea cables or occasionally unreliable radio signals
bounced off of the ionosphere. As you might imagine from this, many in the
Western world weren’t too keen on the state of the situation given that were to someone,
say, the Soviet Union, cut those cables before launching an attack, international communications
with overseas forces and foreign allies would have to rely on the mood of said ionosphere. For those unfamiliar, the ionosphere is a
layer of the upper atmosphere about 50 to 600 miles above sea level. It gets its name because it is ionized consistently
by solar and cosmic radiation. In very simple terms, X-ray, ultraviolet,
and shorter wavelengths of radiation given off by the Sun (and from other cosmic sources)
release electrons in this layer of the atmosphere when these particular photons are absorbed
by molecules. Because the density of molecules and atoms
is quite low in the ionosphere (particularly in the upper layers), it allows free electrons
to exist in this way for a short period of time before ultimately recombining. Lower in the atmosphere, where the density
of molecules is greater, this recombination happens much faster. What does this have to do with communication
and radio waves? Without interference, radio waves travel in
a straight line from the broadcast source, ultimately hitting the ionosphere. What happens after is dependent on a variety
of factors, notable among them being the frequency of the waves and the density of the free electrons. For certain types of radio waves, given the
right conditions, they will essentially bounce back and forth between the ground and the
ionosphere, propagating the signal farther and farther. So clearly the ionosphere can potentially
play an important part in the terrestrial radio and communication process. But it is the constantly shifting nature of
the ionosphere that makes things really interesting. And for that, we’ll have to get a little more
technical, though we’ll at the least spare you the math, and we’ll leave out a little
of the complexity in an effort to not go full textbook on you. To begin with, the ionosphere’s composition
changes most drastically at night, primarily because, of course, the Sun goes missing for
a bit. Without as abundant a source of ionizing rays,
the D and E levels (pictured right) of the ionosphere cease to be very ionized, but the
F region (particularly F2) still remains quite ionized. Further, because the atmosphere is significantly
less dense here then the E and D regions, it results in more free electrons (the density
of which is key here). When these electrons encounter a strong radio
wave of certain types, such as AM radio, they can potentially oscillate at the frequency
of the wave, taking some of the energy from the radio wave in the process. With enough of them, as can happen in the
F layer, (when the density of encountered electrons is sufficient relative to the specific
signal frequency), and assuming they don’t just recombine with some ion (which is much
more likely in the E and D layers in the daytime), this can very effectively refract the signal
back down to Earth at sufficient strength to be picked up on a receiver. Depending on conditions, this process can
potentially repeat several times with the signal bouncing down to the ground and back
up. Thus, using this skywave certain radio signals
can be propagated even thousands of miles and, most pertinent to the topic at hand,
across oceans. Of course, given the unpredictability of this
form of communication, and potentially even times when communication would be impossible,
military brass during the Cold War wanted another option. Developed at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology’s Lincoln Labs, the project was initially called “Project Needles” by Professor
Walter E. Morrow in 1958 when he first dreamed up the idea. It was later re-named “West Ford”, presumably
after Westford, Massachusetts, a nearby town. The idea was to place potentially even billions
of tiny (1.78 centimeters 0.7 inches long and microscopically thin) copper antennae
or dipoles in a medium Earth orbit to be used for communication signals at 8 Ghz. The first set of well over a hundred million
needles was launched on October 21, 1961, but unfortunately this test failed when the
needles didn’t disperse as planned. On a second attempt in May 9, 1963, a batch
of 350 million needles was placed on the back of an Air Force satellite and sent into orbit. Once dispersed, properly this time, the needles
spread to form a sparsely concentrated belt with approximately 50 dipoles per cubic mile. While you might think surely this wouldn’t
be dense enough to be effective for use in communication, in fact early results of the
experiment were extremely promising, with communication established using the needle
array from California to Massachusetts, some 3K or so miles or 4,800 km apart. As such, there were reports that the Air Force
was considering launching two more belts to be placed more permanently in orbit. There was a problem, however. Beyond the Soviets, allies and even Americans
opposed the further deployment and continuance of this program. Why? Astronomers, in particular, were afraid that
the belt would interfere with their observations. The outrage of scientists and the reason for
it was perhaps best expressed by Sir Bernard Lovell of the Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory
who said: “The damage lies not with this experiment alone, but with the attitude of mind which
makes it possible without international agreement and safeguards.” After all, the space above the Earth is not
the United States’ alone to do with as it pleases without consulting other nations of
Earth. While you might consider this a bit of an
overreaction, it’s important to understand the context here, with the U.S. up to and
around this point having done a series of things in space without oversight that the
international community was more than a little upset about. For example, consider that also smack dab
in the middle of this time, the United States was busy accidentally nuking Britain’s first
satellite, among many, many others. The satellite in question was the Ariel-1,
which was developed as a joint-venture between the United States and Britain, with Britain
designing and building the core systems of the satellite and NASA launching it into orbit
via a Thor-Delta rocket. Around nine months after the launch of the
first batch of needles, on July 9, 1962, mere weeks after Ariel-1 was put into orbit and
had successfully begun transmitting data about the ionosphere back to Earth, British scientists
were shocked when the sensors aboard Ariel-1 designed to measure radiation levels suddenly
began to give wildly high readings. As it turned out, as Ariel-1 was happily free-falling
around the Earth, the US military had decided to detonate an experimental 1.4 megaton nuclear
weapon named Starfish-Prime in the upper atmosphere as part of Project Fish Bowl. The explosion, which happened on the other
side of the planet to Ariel-1, sent a wave of additional radiation around the Earth that
ultimately damaged some of the systems on Ariel-1, particularly its solar panels, killing
it and about 1/3 of the rest of the satellites in low-Earth orbit at the time. Most pertinent to the topic of communications,
this famously included the Telstar satellite, which was the first commercial communication
relay satellite designed to transmit signals across the Atlantic and managed around 400
such communications before the U.S. accidentally nuked it. Funny enough, the Telstar actually wasn’t
in orbit at the time of the explosion, being put there the day after the Starfish-Prime
detonation. However, the additional ionizing radiation
created by the explosion took years to dissipate and was not anticipated by the designers of
this particular satellite. The immediate result being the degradation
of Telstar’s systems, particularly the failure of several transistors in the command system,
causing it to stop working just a few months after being placed in orbit. They were eventually able to get it back online
for a short period via some clever software workarounds, but it didn’t last thanks to
the extra radiation further degrading its systems. It’s also noteworthy here that The Starfish
explosion was actually supposed to have happened a couple weeks earlier on June 20th, but the
rocket carrying it failed at about 30,000 feet. Once this happened, the self-destruct on the
nuclear warhead was initiated and it broke apart, raining its radioactive innards down
on Johnston and Sand Islands, as well as in the ocean around them. It should also be noted that the effects of
Starfish-Prime weren’t just limited to low orbit. The electromagnetic pulse created by the blast
ended up being much larger than expected and, in Hawaii some 900 or so miles away from the
blast, the pulse ended up knocking out a few hundred street lights and damaged the telephone
system. Today in our digital world, of course, a similar
electromagnetic pulse would have much more catastrophic effects, especially if near more
populated centers, potentially even revealing the Lizard people’s Matrix, which would be
catastrophic to our Draconian overlords’ (may they reign forever) plans… Needless to say, this, the needles in space,
and other such projects had many in the international community concerned with the lack of any oversight
on the United States’ activities in space. (Presumably it would have been even worse
had everyone realized the United States had, a few years before this, planned to nuke the
moon, more or less just because they could…) Going back to the needle issue, a compromise
measure was reached thanks to incorporating a sort of planned obsolescence; that is, none
of the needles would remain in orbit longer than five years. (Or so they thought, more on this in a bit.) Thinking more long term, several groups of
scientists, including the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the Committee on Space Research
(COSPAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) demanded access and consultation
in this and other such projects in the future. Ultimately an agreement was reached which
granted the scientists the ability to participate in the planning and evaluation of space projects. Of course, this particular issue quickly became
moot as shortly after the second group of needles was dispersed, the military deployed
its own first communication satellite system in 1966, making the needle system, while effective,
obsolete. With this deployment of one object instead
of hundreds of millions, the furor died down and people, for the most part, forgot about
West Ford. That said, while the project is largely forgotten,
its effects are not with the consultation provisions of the original West Ford agreement
with the IAU included in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, an agreement entered into by ninety-nine
countries, that was designed to protect against the militarization and degradation of outer
space. Among other things, in a nutshell, it provides
that no country can claim ownership of space nor any celestial bodies; all countries will
avoid contaminating both and are liable for any damage they cause; no weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) will be deployed or placed in orbit or on any celestial body; and no
military bases may be placed on any celestial bodies, including the Moon, something that
unfortunately saw a planned military installation by the U.S. fully scrapped, as we covered
in our article: That Time the U.S. was Going to Build a Massive, Death Ray Equipped, Military
Moon Base. On the bright side, the treaty also includes
a Good Samaritan law that provides that astronauts are “envoys of mankind in outer space and
[all] shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency
landing.” Going back to the needles, in case you’re
wondering, despite the planned obsolescence, as of 2019, a few dozen clumps of them remain
in orbit and are closely tracked to make sure they don’t cause any problems with all the
other stuff floating around our little beautiful home space craft known as Earth. Speaking of beautiful spacecraft and conflict… Star Conflict!!! Bonus Facts:
• Given AM radio signals can propagate for thousands of miles via the aforementioned
skywaves, particularly at night, this can become a major problem as there are only a
little over 100 allowed AM radio frequencies (restricted to keep signals interfering too
much with one another), but around 5,000 AM radio stations in the United States alone. As a result, at night, AM stations in the
United States typically reduce their power, go off the air completely until sunrise the
next day, and/or possibly are required to use directional antennas so their specific
signal doesn’t interfere with other stations on the same frequency. On the other hand, FM stations don’t have
to do any of this as the ionosphere doesn’t greatly affect their signals, which has the
side benefit (or disadvantage, depending on your point of view) of severely limiting the
range of the FM signals, which rely on groundwave propagation. • Speaking of Radio and space, while not
a job ever mentioned by my school career counselor, it turns out “Space DJ” is a thing, if you
work at NASA, going all the way back to 1965 during the Gemini 6 mission on December 16th,
likely initially as a joke. During this mission, astronauts Walter Schirra
and Tom Stafford were woken up by a recording of singer Jack Jones and Hello Dolly. This musical wake-up call quickly became a
regular occurrence intended as a way of bolstering morale while allowing astronauts a few minutes
to wake up slowly before having to respond to ground control. Over the years, wake-up calls became one of
NASA’s most beloved traditions, with the role of picking the songs given to the mission’s
Capsule Commander (CAPCOM)… Yes, just to be clear, not only do these people
get to put CAPCOM for NASA on their resume, but they can also add in “Space DJ”. Thanks Career Councilor… If you’re wondering, the songs chosen over
the years have been wildly eclectic, ranging from classical music by composers like Bach
and Beethoven to Metallica and the Beastie Boys. Thanks to the extensive records NASA keeps,
we not only know every song played for astronauts in orbit since 1965, we also have the astronaut’s
responses to some of the more unusual choices played. For example, for a 2008 mission aboard the
Space Shuttle Atlantis, officially designated as STS-123, CAPCOM played a brief snippet
of the theme song from the presumably epic film Godzilla VS Space Godzilla as well as
part of the Blue Oyster Cult song, Godzilla, for Japanese astronaut Takao Doi, signing
off by saying: Good morning Endeavour. Doi san, ohayo gozaimasu, from mission control
here in Houston, take on today like a monster. An amused Doi responded that he was “happy
to hear Godzilla,” before himself signing off to get to work. According to Fries’ extensive archives,
Godzilla’s iconic theme song is apparently a popular choice for Japanese astronauts,
as are the themes from other well-known films like Star Wars, Star Trek and Rocky. Predictably, songs with a space theme are
also popular choices, with David Bowie’s Space Oddity and Elton John’s Rocket Man
being noted as some of the most commonly played. In addition to songs, NASA has, at various
points, played private messages recorded by the astronauts’ loved ones (including the
occasional singing of “Happy Birthday” where applicable) and even occasional messages from
celebrities. Notable examples of the latter include personalised
greetings from William Shatner, Paul McCartney and Elton John, a skit performed by Jim Henson
involving Miss Piggy, and even a song sung by Darth Vader set to backing music from The
Beatles. Perhaps best of all was the crew of Atlantis
on November 25, 1991 being woken to none other than Patrick Stewart stating (with Star Trek:
The Next Generation theme music playing in the background),
Space: the final frontier. This is the voyage of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Its ten-day mission: To explore new methods
of remote sensing and observation of the planet Earth… To seek out new data on radiation in space,
and a new understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body… To boldly go where two hundred and fifty-five
men and women have gone before! Hello Fred, Tom, Story, Jim, Tom, and especially
Mario — this is Patrick Stewart, choosing not to outrank you as Captain Jean-Luc Picard,
saying that we are confident of a productive and successful mission. Make it so. As for today, with the retirement of the Space
Shuttle program, this wake-up call tradition has partially been left in the dustbin of
history, though occasionally is still observed on the International Space Station, and presumably
will be reinstituted as a regular activity once NASA begins sending people to space themselves
again.

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