Ear is the sense organ for hearing. Just like the vibration of the membrane of the drums causes the sound formation, similarly in a human ear vibration of this membrane causes the sensation of hearing. Now this portion of the ear that is
present externally and you can see is known as the pinna. So sound waves travel through this canal known as the ear canal and this membrane is known as the ear drum. Now one day, Peter, while going to school because of the loud honking of
the cars his ear suddenly started to bleed, so he went to an ear specialist. The
ear specialist checked his ears properly and said that his ear drum has disrupted. So just like the membranes of the drums can give way if you beat on the drums a lot similarly the ear drums can also disrupt if a very loud sound vibrations vibrate on the membrane. But the doctor told Peter not to worry, it can be cured by operating but there are a few old People who cannot hear properly and that
is the reason They use hearing aids but they do not go for operations because
operation will not be able to cure their hearing problem. Why? Ear has a snail like structure over here which contains a spherical structure inside which has hair cells. These hair cells vibrate when there is sound vibrations coming and this vibration causes the sensation of hearing. See. This snail shaped structure is known as Cochlea and the structure inside the Cochlea is known as the Organ of Corti. The Organ of Corti contains these hair cells. These are the hair cells present in the Organ of Corti. Now when the sound vibrations come the hair cells are vibrated and because of that there is the sensation of hearing. Now with old age the number of hair cells in the Organ of Corti becomes limited, so the ear cannot catch all the sound reaching it. So lesser amount of sound is getting transformed into sound waves. Now, what do these hearing aids do? Well, these hearing aids make the sounds louder and clearer and this they do because of the inbuilt microphone present in these hearing aids. These microphones catch all the sound amplitude and transform it into greater electrical signal by the limited number of hair cells present in the Organ of Corti. Thus these hearing aids enable people to hear better. The Cochlea is divided into three canals. The outer two canals is filled with the fluid known as the Perilymph, where “Peri” means periphery and this middle canal is filled with the fluid known as Endolymph where “Endo” means inside. Now how does the sound reach the Cochlea? Well, sound vibrations come through the ear canal, hits the ear drum, now the vibrations sent to the Cochlea via these three bones that are present in the ear. Let us see how this is happening. See, these bones transfer the vibrations from the ear drum to the Cochlea. Well this bone is hammer shaped and is known as the Malleus. This bone which is shaped like an anvil is known as the Incus. So this is the Incus. And finally this bone is shaped like a stirrup and so called the Stapes. So there are three bones in the ear that helps transfer the sound vibrations from the ear drum to the Cochlea and they are Malleus, Incus and Stapes. Now, why do we feel dizzy when we spin around? Well, this is because above the Cochlea there are three semi-circular canals like these. These semi circular canals are placed at right angles to each other. These semi circular canals are involved in maintenance of balance in our body, and also these canals contain Endolymph in them. So they contain Endolymph. So while spinning the Endolymph also spins and it continues spinning for a short time after we have stopped
spinning. So even if we have stopped spinning we loose our balance and we feel dizzy because the Endolymph is still spinning in the semi-circular canals. Now the ear can be segmented into three parts, this external portion of the ear that
you can see is known as the Pinna. This is the ear tract and this is the ear drum. So all three parts together form the outer ear. Next the three small bones that you can
see that is Malleus, Incus and Stapes form the middle ear and finally the inner ear is composed of
this snail like structures known as the
Cochlea and these semi circular canals that you can see and these semi circular
canals help in maintaining the balance of the body.


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